Lupins and Health Outcomes: A Systematic Literature Review

Lupins have a unique nutrient profile among legumes and may have beneficial health effects when included in the diet. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the effects of lupin on a range of health outcome measures. Databases included MEDLINE, Embase and CINAHL, and focused on controlled intervention studies on healthy adults and those with chronic disease such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and overweight. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses protocol was followed. Investigated intervention diets utilised whole lupin, lupin protein or lupin fibre, and outcomes were measured by markers of chronic disease, body weight and satiety. Quality assessment of results was performed using the Cochrane revised risk of bias tool. Overall, 21 studies with 998 participants were included: 12 using whole lupin, four used lupin protein and five lupin fibre. Beneficial changes were observed in 71% of studies that measured blood pressure, 83% measuring satiety and 64% measuring serum lipids. Unintended weight loss occurred in 25% of studies. Whole lupin demonstrated more consistent beneficial effects for satiety, glycaemic control and blood pressure than lupin protein or lupin fibre. Heterogeneity, low study numbers and a small participant base indicated further studies are required to strengthen current evidence particularly regarding the protein and dietary fibre components of lupin. 

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