The Effect of Replacing Refined Grains with Whole Grains on Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials with GRADE Clinical Recommendation

For adults with or without CVD risk factors, consuming whole grains as opposed to refined grains can improve total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, and C-reactive protein. There is insufficient evidence to
recommend the whole grains as opposed to refined grains for the prevention and treatment of CVD. Further interventional research is needed to better understand the preventive and treatment potential of whole-grain and whole pseudo-grain dietary intake for cardiovascular disease, particularly among those with existing CVD risk factors.

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