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Grains References

Whole Grain Infographic (2019)

  1. Crosland P, Ananthapavan J, Davison J, Lambert M, Carter R. The health burden of preventable disease in Australia: a systematic review. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 2019.
  2. FSANZ. http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/consumer/nutrition/wholegrain/Pages/default.aspx
  3. Curtain F, Grafenauer SJ. Health Star Rating in Grain Foods—Does It Adequately Differentiate Refined and Whole Grain Foods? Nutrients 2019;11(415).
  4. Collaborators GD. Health effects of dietary risks in 195 countries, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. The Lancet 2019.

Whole Grain Infographic (2018)

  1. Grains and Legumes Nutrition Council (2017). Consumption Study. Unpublished.
  2. GBD 2015 Risk Factor Collaborators (2016) Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. The Lancet 388 (10053):1659-724.
  3. Schwingshackl L., et al. (2017) Food groups and risk of all-cause mortality: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 105(6):1462-73.Three servings of whole grains per day (90g) is linked with a 21% reduction in risk of all-cause mortality – the highest of all food groups!/compared to 11% for vegetables
  4. Grains and Legumes Nutrition Council (2017). Australian Bread Audit.
  5. Danish Whole Grain Partnership. (2014). Whole Grain Intake Sets New Record.
      1. Bressani R, De Martell, ECM and De Godinez CM. Protein quality evaluation of amaranth in adult humans. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition (Formerly Qualitas Plantarum), Vol 43, No 2; 123-143.
      2. Marcone MF, Kakuda Y, Yada RY. Amaranth as a rich dietary source of beta-sitosterol and other phytosterols. Plant Foods Hum Nutr.2003;58(3):207-11.
      3. MartirosyanDM, MiroshnichenkoLA, KulakovaSN, PogojevaAVand Zoloedov VI. Amaranth oil application for coronary heart disease and hypertension. Lipids in Health and Disease2007, 6:1.
      4. Silva-Sánchez C, de la Rosa AP, León-Galván MF, de Lumen BO, de León-Rodríguez A, de Mejía EG. Bioactive peptides in amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) seed. J Agric Food Chem.2008 Feb 27;56(4):1233-40.

 

Buckwheat

      1. Alvarez-Jubete L, Wijngaard H, Arendt E, Gallagher E. Polyphenol composition and in vitroantioxidant activity of amaranth, quinoa buckwheat and wheat as affected by sprouting and baking.Food Chemistry. 2010;119(2):770-778.
      2. Wijngaardand H, Arendt E. Buckwheat – Review. Cereal Chem. 2006;83(4):391-401.
      3. Steadman, K.J., Burgoon, M.S., Lewis, B.A., Edwardson, S.E., and Obendorf, R.L. 2001. Minerals, phytic acid, tannin and rutin in buckwheat seed milling fractions.  Sci. Food Agric.81:1094-1100.
      4. Skrabanja V,Liljeberg Elmståhl H,Kreft I, Björck I. Nutritional Properties of Starch in Buckwheat Products: Studies in Vitro and in Vivo.  Agric. Food Chem.2001;49(1): 490–496.
      5. Préstamoa G, Pedrazuelab A, Peñasa E, Lasunciónc MA, Arroyob G. Role of buckwheat diet on rats as prebiotic and healthy food. Nutrition Research. 2003;23(6): 803-814.
      6. Skrabanja V, Kreft I. Resistant Starch Formation Following Autoclaving of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentumMoench) Groats. An In Vitro Study.  Agric. Food Chem. 1998;46 (5):2020–2023.

 

Oats

      1. AbuMweis SS, Jew S, Ames NP. β-glucan from barley and its lipid-lowering capacity: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010;64(12):1472-80.
      2. Tiwari U, Cummins E. Meta-analysis of the effect of β-glucan intake on blood cholesterol and glucose levels. Nutrition. 2011;27(10)1008-16.
      3. Tosh SM. Review of human studies investigating the post-prandial blood-glucose lowering ability of oat and barley food products. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Apr;67(4):310-7

 

Sorghum

      1. Primary Industries Standing Committee. Grains Industry National Research, Development and Extension Strategy. Canberra, Australia: Primary Industries Standing Committee; 2011

 

Wheat

      1. Abdel-Aal E, Young JC, Wood PJ, Rabalski,I, Hucl P, Falk D and Frégeau-Reid J. Einkorn: A Potential Candidate for Developing High Lutein Wheat.Cereal Chem. 2002;79(3):455–457.
      2. Grain Growers Association. What the world wants from Australian wheat. 2011.
      3. Griffin HJ, et al. Higher protein diet for weight management in young overweight women: a 12-month randomized controlled trial. Diab,Obes & Metab. 2013;15(6):572-5Serpen A, Gökmen A, Karagöz A, Köksel H.  Phytochemical quantification and total antioxidant capacities of emmer (Triticum dicoccon Schrank) and einkorn (Triticum monococcum L.) wheat landraces. J Agric Food Chem.2008;56(16):7285-92.Grains and Nutrition
      4. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Australian Health Survey: Nutrition First Results – Food and Nutrients, 2011-2012. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Canberra: 2014.

 

Refined Grains

      1. Williams P. Evaluation of the evidence between consumption of refined grains and health outcomes. 2012 Nutrition Reviews. 70 (2): 8 -99

 

Cereal Fibre

      1. Anderson JW, Baird P, Davis Jr RH, Ferreri S, Knudtson M, Koraym A, Waters V and Williams CL. Health benefits of dietary fiber. Nutr Rev. 2009; 67(4):188–205.
      2. Aune, D et al. Dietary fibre, whole grains, and risk of colorectal cancer: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. BMJ. 2011;343:d6617
      3. Du H et al. Dietary fiber and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference in European men and women. AJCN. 2010;91:329-36.
      4. Howarth NC, Saltzman E, Roberts SB. Dietary fiber and weight regulation. Nutr Rev. 2001; 59:129-139.
      5. Jacobs, D. R., Jr., Andersen, L. F., Blomhoff, R., Jacobs, D. R., Jr., Andersen, L. F., et al. (2007) Whole-grain consumption is associated with a reduced risk of noncardiovascular, noncancer death attributed to inflammatory diseases in the Iowa Women’s Health Study. AJCN. 85:1606–1614.
      6. Park Y, Subar AF, Hollenbeck A, Schatzkin A. Dietary fiber intake and mortality in the NIH-AARP diet and health study. Arch Intern Med. 2011;171(12):1061-8. Epub 2011 Feb 14.
      7. Priebe, M., van Binsbergen, J., de Vos, R., Vonk R. 2008, “Whole grain foods for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus”, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 1.
      8. Williams PG,Grafenauer SJ, and O’Shea JE. Cereal grains, legumes,and weight management: a comprehensive review of the scientific evidence. Nutr Rev. 2008;66(4):171-82
      9. World Cancer Research Fund / American Institute for Cancer Research.Continuous Update Project Interim Report Summary.Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Colorectal Cancer. 2011

 

Glycemic Index

      1. Anderson et al. Carbohydrate and fiber recommendations for individuals with diabetes: a quantitative assessment and meta-analysis of the evidence. American College of Nutrition. 2004; 23(1): 5-17.
      2. Barclay et al. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and chronic disease risk–a meta-analysis of observational studies. AJCN. 2008; 87:627-37
      3. Dong and Qin. Dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 2011
      4. Gögebakan et al. Effects of weight loss and long-term weight maintenance with diets varying in protein and glycemic index on cardiovascular risk factors: the diet, obesity, and genes (DiOGenes) study: a randomized, controlled trial. Circulation. 2011 Nov 21.
      5. Goyenechea et al. Effects of different protein content and glycemic index of ad libitum diets on diabetes risk factors in overweight adults: the DIOGenes multicentre, randomised, dietary intervention trial, Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2011 May 17.
      6. Levitan et al. Dietary glycemic index, dietary glycemic load, blood lipids, and C-reactive protein. Metabolism Clinical and Experimental. 2008; 57: 437–443
      7. Mente et al. A systematic review of the evidence supporting a causal link between dietary factors and coronary heart disease. Ann Intern Med. 2009; 169(7):659-669
      8. Thomas et al. Low glycaemic index, or low glycaemic load, diets for diabetes mellitus. The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 1
      9. Pawlak et al. Long-term effects of dietary glycemic index on adiposity, energy metabolism, and physical activity in mice. Lancet. 2004; 364(9436): 778-85
      10. Philippou et al. Preliminary report: the effect of a 6-month dietary glycemic index manipulation in addition to healthy eating advice and weight loss on arterial compliance and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure in men: a pilot study. Metabolism. 2009; 58(12):1703-8.
      11. Thomas et al. Low glycaemic index or low glycaemic load diets for overweight and obesity, The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 3

 

 

Grains & Weight Management (Health care professionals)

      1. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Australia’s Health 2014. Australia’s health series no. 14. Cat. no. AUS 178. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.
      2. Harland JI, Garton LE, Harland JI, and Garton LE. Wholegrain intake as a marker of healthy body weight and adiposity. Public Health Nutrition. 2008;11(6):554-63.
      3. Larsen T et al. Diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index for weight-loss maintenance. N Engl J Med. 2010; 363(22):2102-13
      4. Noto H et al. Low-Carbohydrate Diets and All-Cause Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(1): e55030
      5. Williams PG, Grafenauer SJ, and O’Shea JE. Cereal grains, legumes, and weight management: a comprehensive review of the scientific evidence. Nutrition Reviews. 2008;66(4):171-82.
      6. Wycherley T, et al. Effects of energy-restricted high-protein, low-fat compared with standard-protein, low-fat diets: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. AJCN. 2012;96(6):1281-98

 

Grains & Weight Loss (consumers)

      1. Griffin HJ, et al. Higher protein diet for weight management in young overweight women: a 12-month randomized controlled trial. Diab,Obes & Metab. 2013;15(6):572-5
      2. Noto H, Goto A, Tsujimoto T, Noda M. Low-Carbohydrate Diets and All-Cause Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies. PLoS ONE.2013;8(1): e55030.

 

Grains and Cardiovascular Disease

      1. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Australia’s Health 2014. Australia’s health series no. 14. Cat. no. AUS 178. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.
      2. Flight I and Clifton P. Cereal grains and legumes in the prevention of coronary heart disease and stroke: a review of the literature. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2006;60(10):1145-59.
      3. Flint AJ, et al. Whole grains and incident hypertension in men. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2009;90(3):493-8.
      4. Giacco R, et al. Effects of regular consumption of wholemeal wheat foods on cardiovascular risk factors in healthy people. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases. 2010;20(3):186-94
      5. Kelly SA, Summerbell CD, Brynes A, Whittaker V, and Frost G. Wholegrain cereals for coronary heart disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2007(2).
      6. Liu S, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Rexrode KM, Hu FB, Rimm EB et al. Whole grain consumption and risk of ischemic stroke in women: a prospective study. JAMA. 2000a;284:1534–1540.
      7. Schiffrin EL. Antioxidants in hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Mol Interv. 2010;10(6):354-62.
      8. Tighe P, et al. Effect of increased consumption of whole-grain foods on blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk markers in healthy middle-aged persons: a randomized controlled trial. AJCN. 2010 Oct;92(4):733-40
      9. Wang L, et al. Whole- and refined-grain intakes and the risk of hypertension in women. AJCN. 2007;86(2):472-9.
      10. Whitehead, A, Beck, E J, Tosh, S and Wolever, T. Cholesterol-lowering effects of oat β-glucan: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. AJCN.2014; 100(6):1413-1421.

 

Grains and Diabetes

      1. de Moura F. Whole grain intake and cardiovascular disease and whole grain intake and diabetes review (available at http://www.lsro.org/articles/wholeGrainIntake.html). 2008, Life Sciences Research Office: Bethesda, MA.
      2. de Munter JSL, Hu FB, Spiegelman D, Franz M, and van Dam RM. Whole grain, bran, and germ intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study and systematic review. PLoS Medicine / Public Library of Science. 2007;4(8):e261.
      3. Fung TT, et al. Whole-grain intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective study in men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2002;76(3):535-40.
      4. Hallfrisch J and Behall K. Mechanisms of the effects of grains on insulin and glucose responses. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 2000;19(3):320S-325S.
      5. Jensen MK, Koh-Banerjee P, Franz M, Sampson L, Gronbaek M, and Rimm EB. Whole grains, bran, and germ in relation to homocysteine and markers of glycemic control, lipids, and inflammation [corrected] [published erratum appears in AM J CLIN NUTR 2006 Jun;83(6):1443]. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2006;83(2):275.
      6. Liese AD, et al. Wholegrain intake and insulin sensitivity: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2003;78(5):965-71.
      7. Lutsey PL, et al. Whole grain intake and its cross-sectional association with obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, diabetes and subclinical CVD: The MESA Study. British Journal of Nutrition. 2007;98(2):397-405.
      8. McKeown NM, Meigs JB, Liu S, Wilson PWF, and Jacques PF. Whole-grain intake is favorably associated with metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the Framingham Offspring Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2002;76(2):390-8.
      9. Priebe M, van Binsbergen J, de Vos R, and Vonk Roel J. Whole grain foods for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2008(1).
      10. Pereira MA, et al. Effect of whole grains on insulin sensitivity in overweight hyperinsulinemic adults. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2002;75(5):848-855.
      11. Rave K, Roggen K, Dellweg S, Heise T, and Tom Dieck H. Improvement of insulin resistance after diet with a wholegrain based dietary product: results of a randomized, controlled cross-over study in obese subjects with elevated fasting blood glucose. British Journal of Nutrition. 2007;98(5):929-936.
      12. Tuomilehto J, et al. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. New England Journal of Medicine. 2001;344:1343-1350.
      13. van Dam RM, et al. Dietary patterns and risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus in U.S. men. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2002;136(3):201-9.
      14. Venn B and Mann J. Cereal grains, legumes and diabetes. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2004;58:1443-1461.

 

Grains & Cancer

      1. Aubertin-Leheudre M, Koskela A, Samaletdin A, Adlercreutz H. Plasma and Urinary Alkylresorcinol Metabolites as Potential Biomarkers of Breast Cancer Risk in Finnish Women: A Pilot Study. Nutrition and Cancer, August 2010.
      2. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare and the Australasian Association of Cancer Registries, Cancer in Australia: an overview, 2008. Cancer series No 46. Cat No.CAN42. 2008, AIHW: Canberra.
      3. Baghurst PA, Rohan TE. High fibre diets and reduced risk of breast cancer. Int J Cancer 1994;56:173–6
      4. Bingham SA, Day NE, Luben R et al (2003) Dietary fibre in food and protection against colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): an observational study. Lancet 361:1496-1501.
      5. Bosetti C, Pelucchi C, and La Vecchia C. Diet and cancer in Mediterranean countries: carbohydrates and fats. Public Health Nutrition. 2009;12(9A):1595-1600.
      6. Chatenoud L, Tavani A, La Vecchia C, Jacobs D, Negri E, Levi F, and Franceschi S. Whole grain food intake and cancer risk. International Journal of Cancer. 1998;77(1):24-28. Williams MT and Hord HG. The role of dietary factors in cancer prevention: beyond fruits and vegetables. Nutrition in Clinical Practice. 2005;20(4):451-459.
      7. Freudenheim JL, et al. Premenopausal breast cancer risk and intake of vegetables, fruits, and related nutrients. J Natl Cancer Inst 1996;88:340–8.
      8. Graham S, et al. Diet in the epidemiology of postmenopausal breast cancer in the New York State cohort. Am J Epidemiol 1992;136:1327–37.
      9. Haas P, Machado M, Anton A, Silva A, and De Francisco A. Effectiveness of whole grain consumption in the prevention of colorectal cancer: Meta-analysis of cohort studies. International Journal of Food Sciences & Nutrition. 2009;60(S6):1-13.
      10. Howe GR, et al. Dietary factors and risk of breast cancer: combined analysis of 12 case-control studies. J Natl Cancer Inst 1990;82:561–9.
      11. Jacobs D, Marquart L, Slavin J, and Kushi L. Whole-grain intake and cancer: an expanded meta-analysis. Nutrition and Cancer. 1998;30(2):85-96.
      12. Jacobs ET, et al. Fiber, sex, and colorectal adenoma: results of a pooled analysis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2006;83(2):343-9.
      13. La Vecchia C, Chatenoud L, Negri E, and Franceschi S. Wholegrain cereals and cancer in Italy. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 2003;62:45-49.
      14. Larsson S, Giovannucci E, Bergkvist L, and Wolk A. Whole grain consumption and risk of colorectal cancer: a population-based cohort of 60 000 women. British Journal of Cancer. 2005;92:1803-1807.
      15. McIntosh GH. Cereal foods, fibres and the prevention of cancer. Australian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics (2001) 58 Suppl 2: S35-48.
      16. Schatzkin A, Mouw T, Park Y, Subar AF, Kipnis V, Hollenbeck A, Leitzmann MF, and Thompson FE. Dietary fiber and whole-grain consumption in relation to colorectal cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.[see comment]. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2007;85(5):1353-60.
      17. Slavin J, Marquart L, and Jacobs D. Consumption of whole-grain foods and decreased risk of cancer: proposed mechanism. Cereal Foods World. 2000;45(54-58).
      18. Slavin J, Martini M, Jacobs D, and Marquart L. Plausible mechanisms for the protectiveness of whole grains. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1999;70(suppl):459S-463S.
      19. Van ‘t Veer P, et al. Combination of dietary factors in relation to breast-cancer occurrence. Int J Cancer 1991;47:649–53.
      20. Zaridze D, Lifanova Y, Maximovitch D, Day NE, Duffy SW. Diet alcohol consumption and reproductive factors in a case control study in Moscow, Russia. Int J Cancer 1991;48:493–501.

 

Recommended Amount of Grains

      1. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Australian Health Survey: Nutrition First Results – Food and Nutrients, 2011-2012. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Canberra: 2014.
      2. National Health and Medical Research Council. Australian Dietary Guidelines. 2013. Canberra: National Health and Medical Research Council. eatforhealth.gov.au

 

Whole Grain Daily Target Intake (DTI)

      1. Griffiths T and Nestel P. Developing a target for daily wholegrain intake for Australians. Food Australia. 2006;58(9):431-433
      2. Griffiths T and Nestel P. Towards an Australian ‘daily target intake’ for wholegrains. Food Australia. 2006;59(12):600-601

 

 

Allergies and Intolerances to Grains

    1. Food Allergy. http://www.allergy.org.au/patients/food-allergy/food-allergy
    2. Biesiekierski JR, Newnham ED, Shepherd SJ, et al. Self-diagnosis of non-coeliac gluten intolerance by Australian adults: failure to exclude coeliac disease or benefit from a gluten-free diet. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2011;26(Suppl. 4):70.
    3. Biesiekierski J et al. No Effects of Gluten in Patients With Self-Reported Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity After Dietary Reduction of Low-Fermentable, Poorly Absorbed, Short-Chain Carbohydrates. Gastroenterology. 2013 Aug;145(2):320-8
    4. Gibson PR, Shepherd SJ. Food choice as a key management strategy for functional gastrointestinal symptoms. Am J Gastroenterol 2012;107:657-666.
    5. Halmos E, et al. Diets that differ in their FODMAP content alter the colonic luminal microenvironment. 2014 Jul 12.(online ahead of print)
    6. Markowitz MA, Jhingran P, Asgharian A, et al. IBS prevalence: results from a community based patient registry based on the Rome II criteria. Am J Gastroenterol 2000;95(9):2634
    7. Ong DK, Mitchell SB, Barrett JS, et al. Manipulation of dietary short chain carbohydrates alters the pattern of gas production and genesis of symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2010;25:1366-1373.
    8. Rumessen JJ, Gudmand-Høyer E. Fructans of chicory: Intestinal transport and fermentation of different chain lengths. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998 Aug;68(2):357-64.
    9. Shepherd SJ, Parker FC, Muir JG, et al. Dietary triggers of abdominal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: randomized placebo-controlled evidence. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2008;6:765-771.
    10. Shepherd SJ, Parker FC, Muir JG, et al. Dietary triggers of abdominal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: randomized placebo-controlled evidence. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2008;6:765-771.
    11. Staudacher et al. Fermentable carbohydrate restriction reduces luminal bifidobacteria and gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Journal of Nutrition, 2012;142;1510-8

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Stay up to date with the latest in nutrition, plus tips, recipes and a whole lot more.


By submitting this form, you are consenting to receive marketing emails from: Grains & Legumes Nutrition Council, Level 1, 40 Mount Street, North Sydney, 2060, http://www.glnc.org.au. You can revoke your consent to receive emails at any time by using the SafeUnsubscribe® link, found at the bottom of every email. Emails are serviced by Constant Contact